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高粱原浆酒材料的栽培技术

发布时间:2021-12-21 浏览次数:网址:https://www.qdljjy.com

㈠温度。高粱是喜温作物,在整个生育期间都要求较高的温度。一定的高温可以提早幼穗分化,低温则可延迟幼穗分化。这种特性称为高粱的感温性。高粱在不同的生育时期内,对温度有不同的要求。种子发芽的Z低温度为6—7℃,Z适温度为20—30℃,Z高温度为44—50℃。高粱幼苗不耐低温和霜冻。出苗至拔节期的适宜温度为20—25℃。
One temperature. Sorghum is a thermophilic crop, which requires higher temperature during the whole growth period. A certain high temperature can advance young panicle differentiation, while low temperature can delay young panicle differentiation. This characteristic is called the temperature sensitivity of sorghum. Sorghum has different requirements for temperature in different growth periods. The low temperature of Z for seed germination is 6-7 ℃, the suitable temperature of Z is 20-30 ℃, and the high temperature of Z is 44-50 ℃. Sorghum seedlings are not resistant to low temperature and frost. The suitable temperature from seedling emergence to jointing stage is 20-25 ℃.
拔节至抽穗期为高粱生育的旺盛时期,适宜温度为25—30℃。过高温度会使植株发育加快,茎秆细弱,提早抽穗,穗小码稀。开花至成熟期对温度要求比较严格,Z适温度为26—30℃,低温会使花期推迟,开花过程延长,影响授粉,如遇高温和伏旱,会使结实率降低。灌浆阶段较大的温差有利于干物质的积累和子粒灌浆成熟。
The vigorous growth period of sorghum is from jointing to heading, and the suitable temperature is 25-30 ℃. Too high temperature will accelerate plant development, thin and weak stems, early heading, small panicles and sparse yards. The temperature requirements from flowering to maturity are relatively strict. The suitable temperature for Z is 26-30 ℃. Low temperature will delay the flowering period, prolong the flowering process and affect pollination. In case of high temperature and summer drought, the seed setting rate will be reduced. The larger temperature difference in the grouting stage is conducive to the accumulation of dry matter and grain filling maturity.
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㈡水分。高粱具有抗旱能力,不仅能抗土壤干旱,也能耐大气干旱。同时高粱又具有耐涝性,其耐涝性在孕穗期以后尤为明显。在抽穗后如遇连续降雨,在短期内淹水不没顶,仍能获得一定产量。苗期约占全生育期总需水量的10%;拔节孕穗期占50%,这期间如水分不足,会影响植株生长和幼穗分化;孕穗至开花期占15%,水分不足会造成“掐脖子”,是高粱需水临界期;灌浆期占20%;成熟期占5%左右。全生育期降雨400—500mm分布均匀即可满足其生长需要。
Second, moisture. Sorghum has the ability to resist drought. It can resist not only soil drought, but also atmospheric drought. At the same time, sorghum has waterlogging tolerance, especially after booting stage. In case of continuous rainfall after heading, a certain yield can still be obtained without top flooding in a short time. The seedling stage accounts for about 10% of the total water demand in the whole growth period; The jointing booting stage accounts for 50%. During this period, if water is insufficient, it will affect plant growth and young panicle differentiation; The period from booting to flowering accounts for 15%. Insufficient water will cause "pinch neck", which is the critical period of sorghum water demand; Filling stage accounts for 20%; The mature stage accounts for about 5%. The rainfall of 400-500mm in the whole growth period can be evenly distributed to meet its growth needs.
㈢光照。高粱是喜光作物,在生长发育过程中,要求有充足的光照条件。光照不足会延迟生育,产量降低,特别是后期光照不足,直接影响子粒干物质积累。高粱属短日照作物,缩短光照时数可提早抽穗和成熟,延长光照则成熟延迟。北方品种引种到南方种植,光照时数缩短,会提早成熟。
Three lights. Sorghum is a light loving crop. In the process of growth and development, it is required to have sufficient light conditions. Insufficient light will delay growth and reduce yield, especially in the later stage, which will directly affect the dry matter accumulation of seeds. Sorghum is a short day crop. Shortening the light hours can lead to early heading and maturity, while prolonging the light will delay maturity. When Northern varieties are introduced to the south for planting, the light hours will be shortened and they will mature early.
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